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    Limestone Consumption Factor (LCF)

    Scope of work:

    • Evaluation of plant data in respect of raw materials characteristics, raw mix design, fuel, clinker quality and dust losses etc.
    • Characterization of representative samples of raw materials, raw meal, kiln feed, clinker, coal and dust collected during plant visit.
    • Determination of kiln feed to clinker ratio.
    • Establishing limestone consumption factor
    • Preparation of report based on the above

    Geological classification of raw materials and additives will not form a part of LCF studies and any nomenclature declared by national or international agencies/sources (such as IBM) will be used.

    Evaluation of Raw Materials and Cement

    Scope of work:

    Evaluation of the following samples to be carried out on quarterly basis.

     

    Sl.No Nature of test Type of samples Parameters determined
    1. Chemical analysis Limestone LOI, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SO3, MgO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, Mn2O3, Cl, free silica
    Additives LOI, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SO3, MgO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, Mn2O3,, Cl
    Industrial wastes LOI, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SO3, MgO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, Mn2O3, Cl, F, Cl, reactive silica (for fly ash/pozzolana), Sulphide sulphur (for Slag)

    Heavy & toxic elements by ICP

    Raw meal and kiln feed LOI, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SO3, MgO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, Mn2O3, Cl, free silica
    Coal/pet coke Proximate analysis, Ultimate analysis, Calorific value, Hard Groove Index
    Clinker, OPC, PPC, PSC and any other type of cement LOI, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SO3, MgO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, Mn2O3, Cl, free lime, insoluble residue etc
    Coatings, build-ups etc LOI, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SO3, MgO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, Mn2O3, Cl,
    2. Physical testing Limestone, clinker Bond Grindability Index, Litre weight (for clinker)
    Fly ash All parameters as per Indian Standard
    OPC, PPC & PSC Complete physical testing as per relevant Indian Standard
    Kiln feed, OPC, PPC & PSC Particle size distribution (PSD)
    3. Mineral/phase analysis by XRD Limestone and raw materials Mineral phase analysis of raw materials, detection of pyrites and other minor phases after removing carbonates,
    Clinker & OPC Semi-quantitative estimation of cement phases, polymorphism, detection of free lime, periclase or any other undesired phases, alkali sulphates / chlorides etc.
    Rings/coatings/build-ups etc (if any) Phase analysis
    4. Microscopic analysis OPC clinker Microstructure and granulometery
    5. Compilation of test data and reporting

     

    1. Terms & conditions: 1.   Samples lot to be provided quarterly by the plant at the beginning   of respective quarter (No. of samples in each quarter ≤15)
    2.   Report will be submitted within 30-45 days after receipt of sample/ R&D contribution which ever is later.

     

    Optimization of Raw Mix Design for Manufacture of Cement

    Scope of work:

    1. Site visit, discussions with plant management, collection of relevant data and representative samples of raw materials and fuel.
    2. Physico-chemical and mineralogical evaluation of raw materials and fuel.
    3. Designing and preparation of different raw mixes utilizing limestone and other raw materials.
    4. Burnability studies of above raw mixes and evaluation of free lime content in the laboratory clinker samples.
    5. Mineralogical and micro structural evaluation of above clinker samples using X-ray diffraction and Optical Microscopic techniques.
    6. Optimization of raw mix design
    7. Bulk preparation of optimized laboratory clinker sample.
    8. Preparation of cement sample from above laboratory clinker.
    9. Performance evaluation of above cement sample as per relevant Indian Standard Specification.
    10. Report covering 1-9 above.

     

    Utilization of Low-Grade Limestone in Manufacture of Belite Cement Targeting the Strength Requirements of OPC-43 grade Cement

    Scope of work:

    1. Plant visit, discussions with plant management, collection of relevant plant data and representative samples of raw materials, clinker and fuel.
    2. Physico-chemical and mineralogical evaluation of raw materials, clinker and fuel.
    3. Designing and preparation of different raw mixes utilizing available low-grade limestone along with mineralizer / sweetener.
    4. Burnability studies of above raw mixes and evaluation of free lime content in clinker samples.
    5. Mineralogical and microstructural evaluation of above clinker samples using XRD and OM techniques, bond grindability index and litre weight of clinker sample thus prepared.
    6. Optimization of raw mix, burning conditions and preparation of laboratory clinker from the optimized raw mix
    7. Bulk preparation of optimized laboratory clinker sample.
    8. Preparation of cement sample from above clinker and its performance evaluation as per Indian Standard Specification.
    9. Establishing Techno-Economic viability of the product.
    10. Preparation of report covering 1-9 above.

     

     

    Optimization of Raw Mix Design for Manufacture of OPC (Green Field Project)  

    Scope of work:

    1. Site visit, discussions with plant management and collection of relevant data and representative samples of raw materials and fuel
    2. Chemical analysis of raw materials and additives for the following constituents: Total carbonates, CaCO3, MgCO3, LOI, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, SO3, Na2O, K2O, Mn2O3, P2O5, Chloroide, free silica etc
    3. Mineralogical and microstructural evaluation of above materials by X-ray diffractometery and Optical microscopy
    4. Thermal analysis to determine decarbonation characteristics of limestone
    5. Bond grindability, hardness on mho’s scale, aggregate abrasion by Los angels test and aggregate impact value test of limestone sample(s)
    6. Proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and coal ash analysis and hard groove index of fuel sample(s)
    7. Designing of raw mixes using above raw materials and fuel at defined moduli values and fineness level in order to obtain desired quality of OPC clinker
    8. Burnability studies on the above designed raw mixes
    9. Mineralogical evaluation of clinkers prepared from above raw mixes by X-ray diffractometery and optical microscopy
    10. Optimization of raw mix on the basis of 8-9 above
    11. Preparation of bulk clinker in a laboratory furnace from optimized raw mix and its evaluation by X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy
    12. Bond grindability of bulk clinker
    13. Preparation of OPC from bulk clinker and its performance evaluation as per relevant Indian Standard Specification.
    14. Report covering 1-13 above.

     

    Investigations on Performance Improver in Cement

    Scope of work:

    1. Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization of the samples of limestone, blast furnace slag, fly ash, rice husk ash, metakaoline, clinker and mineral gypsum.
    2. Preparation of control OPC and OPC blends by inter-grinding using 5 percent each of limestone, blast furnace slag, fly ash, rice husk ash, metakaoline samples with OPC clinker and mineral gypsum keeping constant Blaine’s fineness.
    3. Particle size gradation of above cement samples.
    4. Performance evaluation of above cement samples at ages of 3, 7 and 28 days for mortar strength under standard testing conditions.
    5. Report covering 1-4 above.

     

    Maximization of Fly ash in PPC with Improving Clinker Quality

    Scope of work:

    1. Plant visit by NCB team for discussions with the plant management and collection of representative samples of limestone, additives, fuel, in-process materials, gypsum and fly ash.
    2. Physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization and evaluation of above samples.
    3. Designing of raw mixes using above raw materials and fuel for the manufacture of Portland cement clinker with target C3S content.
    4. Burnability studies on the above designed raw mixes.
    5. Mineralogical evaluation of clinkers prepared from above raw mixes by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis.
    6. Optimization of raw mix on the basis of 4 and 5 above.
    7. Preparation of bulk clinker in a laboratory furnace from optimized raw mix at (6) above and its evaluation by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis.
    8. Preparation of PPC of target fineness from above (7) bulk clinker using target percentage of fly ash and its performance evaluation as per relevant Indian Standard Specification.
    9. Report covering 1-8 above.

     

    Utilization of Blast Furnace Slag in the Manufacture of Portland Slag Cement (PSC)

    Scope of work:

    1. Plant visit by NCB team for discussion with the plant management and providing guidelines for collection of representative samples of blast furnace slag.
    2. Characterization of above blast furnace slag samples collected for establishing quality and quality variation and preparation of a composite sample of blast furnace slag.
    3. Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization of samples of composite blast furnace slag, clinker and mineral gypsum.
    4. Preparation of various PSC blends using different blend ratio of composite sample of blast furnace slag, clinker and gypsum at a fixed fineness level.
    5. Performance evaluation of above PSC blends and optimization of blend composition i.e. clinker-slag ratio.
    6. Preparation of PSC blends with optimized blend composition at different fineness levels.
    7. Performance evaluation of blends prepared at 6 above and optimization of fineness level.
    8. Preparations of Portland Slag Cement blend with optimized blend composition at optimized fineness and its performance evaluation for its conformity to Indian Standard Specification IS: 455-1989.
    9. Report covering 1-8 above.

     

    Investigations on the Causes of Lump Formation in Cement Bags

    Scope of work:

    1. Plant visit for on the spot assessment of grinding and storage conditions, extent of lump formation and collection of relevant samples including cement lumps and plant data.
    2. Chemico-mineralogical evaluation of raw materials, clinker, gypsum, cement and cement lumps.
    3. Identification and evaluation of various factors leading to lump formation in the cement bags.
    4. Optimization of type (gypsum / natural anhydrite/ hemi hydrate) and content of SO3 for reducing lump formation in the cement bags.
    5. Optimization of grinding process parameters to reduce / eliminate lump formation in the cement bags.
    6. Formulation of recommendations for preventing/eliminating lump formation in the cement silo.
    7. Preparation of report covering 1-6 above.

     

    Diagnostic Studies on the Causes of Coating and Build ups in Cement Rotary Kiln System

    Scope of work:

    1. Visit of NCB team for on the spot assessment of the problem during normal operation as well as physical inspection of coating and build ups during kiln shut down.
    2. Collection of relevant samples of used / unused refractory, coating and buildup samples, raw materials, in-process materials, fuels, process water, etc.
    3. Collection of specific process and quality control data as per questionnaire specifically prepared for the study.
    4. Assessment of existing kiln operating parameters and process measurements related to CO/O2 levels, shell temperatures, etc.
    5. Interim report based on preliminary findings during plant visit, pending detailed investigations.
    6. Physico-chemical, thermal and mineralogical characterization of samples as collected above at NCB labs.
    7. Evaluation and interpretation of the data as obtained above and from the results of NCB lab investigations.
    8. Establishing the causes of coating and buildup formation and formulation of recommendations for reducing / minimizing the occurrence of coating and buildups.
    9. Preparation of report covering 1-8 above.

     

    Diagnostic studies on the causes of Kiln Shell Corrosion in Cement Rotary Kiln System 

    Scope of work:

    1. Visit of NCB team for on the spot assessment of the problem during normal operation as well as physical inspection of corroded kiln shell during kiln shut down.
    2. Collection of relevant samples of used / unused refractory, corroded kiln shell flakes, raw materials, in-process materials, fuels, water, etc.
    3. Assessment of existing kiln operating parameters.
    4. Interim report based on preliminary findings during plant visit, pending detailed investigations.
    5. Characterization of samples as collected above by physical, chemical and mineralogical methods at NCB lab.
    6. Evaluation and interpretation of the data obtained above and from the results of NCB lab investigations.
    7. Establishing the causes of kiln shell corrosion and formulation of recommendations for remedial measures.
    8. Preparation of report covering 1-7 above.

     

    Diagnostic Investigations on Premature failure of Refractories in the Cement Rotary Kiln

    Scope of work:

    1. Plant visit of NCB experts for on the spot assessment of the problem and collection of relevant samples of used/ unused refractories, raw materials, in-process materials, fuel and product.
    2. Collection of relevant data on refractory quality and laying practices, heating schedule, mix quality, kiln operation, burner location and fuel combustion, etc.
    3. Physico-chemical, thermal and mineralogical characterization and evaluation of above samples.
    4. Evaluation of data collected and establishing the causes of premature refractory failure.
    5. Formulations of the recommendations for improving the performance of refractory lining in the rotary kiln.
    6. Preparation of report covering 1-5 above.

     

    Investigations on Used Refractory Brick Samples

    Scope of work:

    1. Physico-chemical and thermo-mineralogical evaluation of damaged refractory bricks as provided by sponsor
    2. Interpretation of Results as obtained from above
    3. Establishing extent of damage in refractory bricks and identifying the reasons for the damage.
    4. Preparation of report covering 1-3 above.

     

    Refractory Management Studies in the Cement Rotary Kiln System

    Scope of work:

    1. Plant visit for collection of samples of area wise used / unused refractories, in process materials, fuels, etc. and assessment and collection of data on following:
    2. Refrectory lining design, layout, quality, brick shapes, size, combination and expansion allowance etc.
    3. Refractory laying practices.
    4. Anchor design and spacing configuration
    5. Heating and cooling schedules.
    6. Kiln operating parameters.
    7. Raw mix design, fuel quality, product, coating, build-ups and rings characteristics (if applicable).
    8. Kiln mechanics-ovality/ alignments
    9. Statistical refractory performance.
    10. Burner design, its placement in kiln and related aspects.
    11. Evaluation of the data obtained from the above
    12. Establishing the physico-chemical and mineralogical compatibility of the refractory products with kiln operation, raw mix and product quality.
    13. Establishing the wear rate and refractory consumption factor.
    14. Design of techno-economic lining schemes for CRK system.
    15. Formulations of guidelines for refractory management system.
    16. Preparation of report covering 1-15 above.

     

    Diagnostic Investigations on Premature Refractory Failures of Burner Pipe of Cement Rotary Kiln

    Scope of work:

    1. Plant visit of NCB team for on the spot assessment of the problem.
    2. Collection of relevant samples of worn out refractory of burner pipe and other in-process materials, etc. and prevailing installation/ heat up procedures being followed at the plant.
    3. Collection of kiln operating data and assessment of plant operating conditions
    4. Characterization of the above samples by physical, chemical, thermal, mineralogical and microscopic techniques
    5. Establishing the causes of the refractory failures and formulating recommendations for remedial measures for improving the lining life of burner pipe refractories.
    6. Preparation of report covering 1-5 above.

    Last updated on :08/04/2016

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